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   2015| July-September  | Volume 40 | Issue 3  
    Online since June 16, 2015

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Defining and measuring vulnerability in young people
Shilpa Khanna Arora, Dheeraj Shah, Sanjay Chaturvedi, Piyush Gupta
July-September 2015, 40(3):193-197
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158868  PMID:26170545
Adolescents and youth, together addressed as "young people", form the future building blocks of any society. They being most energetic and dynamic, tend to get involved in high-risk behaviors making themselves susceptible to criminal offences, accidents, physical injuries, emotional trauma, and medical problems - some of them extremely serious like transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The concept of vulnerability is applicable to all the people who are more exposed to risks than their peers like the young people. In order to deal with social evils like criminal offences, domestic violence, sexual abuse, HIV, etc. we need to define vulnerability and understand the factors that influence it. This review also attempts to summarize the indicators of vulnerability and the data currently available to estimate its burden in India. Measuring the magnitude of vulnerability by means of certain indicators/variables might help us in devising tools to assess this poorly defined entity. This may also evolve a conceptual framework on which targeted remedial interventions can be devised and implemented.
  5,371 457 13
Visual inspection with acetic acid (via) screening program: 7 years experience in early detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancers in rural South India
Usha Rani Poli, PD Bidinger, Swarnalata Gowrishankar
July-September 2015, 40(3):203-207
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158873  PMID:26170547
Cervical cancer continues to be a major public health problem in India in the absence of wide spread organised cervical screening programs. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) is an effective, inexpensive screening test that can be combined with simple treatment procedures for early cervical lesions, provided by trained health workers. We report 7 years experience in early detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancers using the VIA test in a community-based program in rural Andhra Pradesh, India where there are no existing organised cervical screening programs. Materials and Methods: Eligible women aged between 26 and 60 were opportunistically screened by trained health wor kers using the VIA test. Women who tested positive were further evaluated and those with cervical lesions were treated either by cryotherapy in the screening clinic or referred to a higher center. Results: A total of 18,869 women were screened by a single round of VIA testing with a positive rate of 10.75%. Biopsy proven high-grade squamous intraepithelials (HSILs) were 90 (0.48%) and low-grade squamous intraepithelials (LSILs) were 43 (0.28%). The overall prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+ lesion rate is 1.05%. A total of 312 (1.65%) cryotherapies were done and 49 women underwent hysterectomy. Conclusions: VIA by trained female health workers is a safe, acceptable, and effective test that can save lives from cervical cancer even in remote areas with few resources. These results have important implications for efficient service delivery in cervical screening programs in low-resourced settings.
  4,246 427 19
Serological, clinical, and epidemiological profile of human brucellosis in rural India
Smita S Mangalgi, Annapurna G Sajjan, Shivajirao T Mohite, Satish V Kakade
July-September 2015, 40(3):163-167
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158847  PMID:26170539
Background: Brucellosis is an important but neglected zoonotic disease in India. Due to frequent animal contact, high prevalence of this disease, though expected in rural population, has not been much studied. Aim: The study was carried out to determine serological, clinical, and epidemiological profile including associated risk factors for human brucellosis in rural India. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, serum samples from 1,733 individuals residing in rural areas were screened for the presence of anti-brucellar antibodies by Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT), Serum Agglutination test (SAT), and 2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME). Clinical symptoms, epidemiological data including risk factors and knowledge about brucellosis were evaluated by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. Results: Of the 1,733 individuals, 998 had direct contact with animals, whereas 735 had no direct contact. The overall positivity rates by RBPT, SAT, and 2-ME test were 10.50% (182), 7.32% (127), and 5.88% (102), respectively. Clinical symptoms resembling brucellosis were seen in 151 (8.71%) subjects. Animal contact especially during milking, parturition/abortion was the major risk factor, followed by raw milk ingestion. None of the participant knew about brucellosis. Conclusion: Regular surveillance of the disease with awareness programs emphasizing prevention and control are needed.
  4,202 400 7
Strategic management and leadership for health professionals - Skills to leverage resources to achieve health goals
Sanjiv Kumar, Neeta Kumar, Vivek S Adhish, Rahul S Reddy
July-September 2015, 40(3):158-162
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158845  PMID:26170538
  3,852 477 5
Preventing childhood blindness: Synergy between ophthalmology and community medicine
Rohit Saxena, Praveen Vashist, Digvijay Singh, Radhika Tandon
July-September 2015, 40(3):149-151
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158841  PMID:26170536
  3,584 358 5
Contraceptive use and unintended pregnancies among HIV-infected women in Mumbai
Beena Joshi, Gajanan Velhal, Sanjay Chauhan, Ragini Kulkarni, Shahina Begum, YS Nandanwar, Michelle Fonseca, Sujata Baweja, Dilip Turbadkar, Anita Ramchandran, Asha Dalal, Jayanti Shastri, Sachee Agrawal, Manisha Panhale, Vasundhara Sanap, Pravin , Renuka Panchal, Suman Kanougiya
July-September 2015, 40(3):168-173
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158855  PMID:26170540
Background: Access to reproductive health services in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) programs can greatly enhance program's potential to limit the spread of disease, reduce unintended pregnancies and safeguard the health of infected people. Objectives: To assess (i) knowledge, attitude, and use regarding contraceptives; safe sex and dual protection; (ii) fertility desires and unintended pregnancies post HIV and (iii) symptoms of reproductive tract infection/sexually transmitted infection (RTI/STI) among women infected with HIV. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study among 300 currently married HIV-positive women who had not undergone permanent sterilization with no immediate desire for pregnancy. Study site was Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers (ICTC) in tertiary hospitals of Mumbai and women were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire. Results: In spite of good awareness about modern methods, 42.7 felt that contraceptives other than condoms were harmful to use due to their HIV status. Knowledge on dual protection was limited to condom (75%). Condom use increased from 5.7% pre-HIV to 71.7% post-HIV, with 89.6% reporting regular use. Future fertility desire was expressed by 8.7% women. Induced abortions post-HIV was reported by16.6% women, as pregnancies were unintended. About 69% wished to use dual contraceptive methods for effective protection if it was not harmful to be used by people living with HIV (PLHIV). Conclusion: Data reveals a need to promote modern contraceptive methods along with regular condom use to prevent unintended pregnancies and improve health-seeking behavior for contraception. Health system models that converge or link HIV services with other reproductive health services need to be tested to provide comprehensive reproductive healthcare to infected women in India.
  2,950 422 6
On the study of pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) and weight gain as indicators of nutritional status of pregnant women belonging to low socio-economic category: A study from Assam
Lipi B Mahanta, Manisha Choudhury, Arundhuti Devi, Arunima Bhattacharya
July-September 2015, 40(3):198-202
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158870  PMID:26170546
Women, particularly pregnant women, are the most vulnerable population of the society and their health status is one of the major indicators of development. There were enough studies on pre pregnancy body mass index (IPBMI) and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy (IWGP) of women in other part of the world and India, but none in Assam. In Assam a large number of population are in the category of low socio-economic group, a group most vulnerable to under nutrition. Thus this study was framed with the said indicators to throw light on the factors affecting the health status of pregnant women to accordingly address the situation. A cross sectional study using multistage sampling design with probability proportional to size was made comprising of 461 pregnant women belonging to low socio-economic status. Responses regarding their socio-economic, socio-cultural, health, diet and environmental background were collected and coded. The study revealed that although IPBMI (34.06%) was slightly lower than the reported state, national and global percentage the revealed IWGP (82%) was an astounding figure. The blood samples analyzed showed a high degree of inadequacy in almost all micronutrients (iron 63.1%, calcium 49.5% and copper 39.9%) studied in our survey.
  2,942 264 3
Microbiological evaluation of Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT)-treated milk close to expiry date and routine home practices for preservation of milk
Udayalaxmi Jeppu, Namitha Jayaram, Sneha Satya, Amrutha Kandathil Purayil
July-September 2015, 40(3):174-176
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158858  PMID:26170541
Background: As milk is an excellent medium for growth of microorganisms, milk gets contaminated very easily leading to its early spoilage and to milk-borne diseases. Objectives: To compare the quality of pasteurized milk with milk cooker-treated milk and to compare the quality of fresh ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk with that of UHT milk close to expiry date. Materials and Methods: Samples of pasteurized milk, milk heated in milk cooker, fresh UHT milk, and UHT milk nearing expiry date were tested by methylene blue reduction test, coliform test, and colony count test. The results were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. Results: All milk samples passed the methylene blue test and UHT-treated milk passed the coliform test also. Out of the 30 fresh pasteurized milk samples, seven (23.3%) passed the coliform test; but the same after milk cooker treatment, 16 (53.3%) passed the coliform test (P < 0.05). Fourteen (46.6%) out of 30 fresh pasteurized milk samples failed the colony count test, but the same after milk cooker treatment only eight (26.6%) failed the test (P = 0.583). Only seven out of the 60 UHT milk samples failed the colony count test and out of these six (20%) were close to expiry date (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Milk cooker-treated milk appears to be safer than the fresh pasteurized milk. Fresh UHT-treated milk is safer then UHT milk close to expiry date.
  2,853 277 1
Prevalence of obesity among male adolescents in Arar Saudi Arabia: Future risk of cardiovascular disease
Shehab A Alenazi, Hala M Koura, Sherif M Zaki, Ayman H Mohamed
July-September 2015, 40(3):182-187
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158864  PMID:26170543
Background: Obesity in adolescence is crucial as it represents an important stage in human life. Dietary habits are greatly associated with lifestyle. Many reports suggested direct relationship between adolescent fatness and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) which will be found in young adult population. Aim: Determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among male adolescents in Arar city, Saudi Arabia (KSA). We estimated the future risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in this age‐group and its possible correlation to different lifestyles and dietary habits. Results: A total of 523 male students with a mean age of 16.7 ± 0.9 years participated in the current study in which 30.4% of those students were obese and 17.2% were overweight. A direct relationship was found between body weight and different dietary and lifestyle habits. The risk of CVD based on waist height ratio (WHtR) was found in 33.5% of participants (30.4% obese, 2.1% overweight and 1% normal weight); moreover, the risk of CVD was strongly related to different dietary and lifestyle habits. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity were high among adolescent male students in Arar, who became susceptible to the risk of CVD. Arar showed the highest rate of obesity all over KSA. Both obesity and risk of CVD were strongly related to bad dietary habits and lifestyle.
  2,443 318 4
Can competitive advantages of markets be leveraged for addressing childhood obesity in India?
Rakesh Pillai, Rajib Dasgupta, Prashant Mathur, Narendra K Arora
July-September 2015, 40(3):145-148
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158839  PMID:26170535
  2,380 308 2
Probability mapping to determine the spatial risk pattern of acute gastroenteritis in Coimbatore District, India, using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Pawlin Vasanthi Joseph, Brindha Balan, Vidhyalakshmi Rajendran, Devi Marimuthu Prashanthi, Balasubramanian Somnathan
July-September 2015, 40(3):188-192
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158865  PMID:26170544
Background: Maps show well the spatial configuration of information. Considerable effort is devoted to the development of geographical information systems (GIS) that increase understanding of public health problems and in particular to collaborate efforts among clinicians, epidemiologists, ecologists, and geographers to map and forecast disease risk. Objectives: Small populations tend to give rise to the most extreme disease rates, even if the actual rates are similar across the areas. Such situations will follow the decision-maker's attention on these areas when they scrutinize the map for decision making or resource allocation. As an alternative, maps can be prepared using P-values (probabilistic values). Materials and Methods: The statistical significance of rates rather than the rates themselves are used to map the results. The incidence rates calculated for each village from 2000 to 2009 is used to estimate λ, the expected number of cases in the study area. The obtained results are mapped using Arc GIS 10.0. Results: The likelihood of infections from low to high is depicted in the map and it is observed that five villages namely, Odanthurai, Coimbatore Corporation, Ikkaraiboluvampatti, Puliakulam, and Pollachi Corporation are more likely to have significantly high incidences. Conclusion: In the probability map, some of the areas with exceptionally high or low rates disappear. These are typically small unpopulated areas, whose rates are unstable due to the small numbers problem. The probability map shows more specific regions of relative risks and expected outcomes.
  2,318 324 -
Options for a health system researcher to choose in Meta Review (MR) approaches-Meta Narrative (MN) and Meta Triangulation (MT)
Sanjeev Davey, Anuradha Davey, Jai Vir Singh
July-September 2015, 40(3):152-157
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158843  PMID:26170537
Two new approaches in systematic reviewing i.e. Meta-narrative review(MNR) (which a health researcher can use for topics which are differently conceptualized and studied by different types of researchers for policy decisions) and Meta-triangulation review(MTR) (done to build theory for studying multifaceted phenomena characterized by expansive and contested research domains) are ready for penetration in an arena of health system research. So critical look at which approach in Meta-review is better i.e. Meta-narrative review or Meta-triangulation review, can give new insights to a health system researcher. A systematic review on 2 key words-"meta-narrative review" and "meta-triangulation review" in health system research, were searched from key search engines, such as Pubmed, Cochrane library, Bio-med Central and Google Scholar etc till 21st March 2014 since last 20 years. Studies from both developed and developing world were included in any form and scope to draw final conclusions. However unpublished data from thesis was not included in systematic review. Meta-narrative review is a type of systematic review which can be used for a wide range of topics and questions involving making judgments and inferences in public health. On the other hand Meta-triangulation review is a three-phased, qualitative meta-analysis process which can be used to explore variations in the assumptions of alternative paradigms, gain insights into these multiple paradigms at one point of time and addresses emerging themes and the resulting theories.
  2,252 263 2
The knowledge and uptake of travel vaccine among medical doctors in a tertiary health institution in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria
Zuwaira Ibrahim Hassan, Tolulope O Afolaranmi
July-September 2015, 40(3):177-181
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158861  PMID:26170542
Background: Travelers play a significant role in the spread of infectious diseases across international borders, through their travel patterns and behaviors. Travel maybe the only risk factor for infectious diseases that are well controlled in the travelers' country of residence, particularly vaccine-preventable diseases. The role of vaccination among travelers is an essential component of the control of travel-associated infectious diseases. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and uptake of travel vaccine among medical doctors in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH). Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 2013 using quantitative method of data collection among 189 medical doctors. Epi Info™ statistical software package version 3.5.4 was used for data analysis and a P ͳ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: The mean age of the respondents was 33.8 ± 4.5 years, majority of the respondents (96.3%) were aware of travel vaccines with 45 (71.4%) of the 63 respondents who had embarked on international travel prior to the study had taken travel vaccine in their last travel. Knowledge of travel vaccination was found to have statistically significant relationship with uptake of travel vaccine (P = 0.013). Conclusion: This study has revealed the need to improve the knowledge and uptake of travel vaccine among medical doctors.
  2,117 324 3
Yoga and mental health in medical students: Some methodological considerations
Sundar Gnanavel
July-September 2015, 40(3):208-208
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158874  PMID:26170548
  1,588 203 -
Screening employees of a tertiary care hospital for cancer cervix and cancer breast: A cross-sectional study
Pandya S Jayashri, Yi Ching Ling, Dalal Asha, Vutha S Ravikiran
July-September 2015, 40(3):211-212
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158876  PMID:26170550
  1,389 175 -
Post-partum screening of gestational diabetes: Opportunities for integration with existing public health
Sanjay Kalra, Yashdeep Gupta
July-September 2015, 40(3):209-210
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.158875  PMID:26170549
  1,397 166 -
Pradeep Kumar
July-September 2015, 40(3):213-213
  1,088 130 -
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007