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   2007| October-December  | Volume 32 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 27, 2007

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Effect of maternal factors on nutritional status of 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population
A Mittal, J Singh, SK Ahluwalia
October-December 2007, 32(4):264-267
Objective: To study the effect of various maternal factors on the prevalence of underweight and stunting among 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three urban slums of Tripuri Town, Patiala. All 1-5-year children living in these slums were included, whose mother's demographic profile, weight and height were recorded. Results: Out of 482 children who participated in the study, 185 (38.38%) had low weight for age whereas 222 (46.06%) had low height for age. Both kinds of malnutrition were common in females than in males. Prevalence of malnutrition was more where mother's age was less than 20 years. Children of educated mothers were better nourished as compared to illiterate ones. Conclusion: Maternal factors significantly affect a child's nutritional status, thus encouraging the improvement in the social status of women so as to have healthy children and thereby a healthy future.
  16,656 1,144 35
A study of health problems and loneliness among the elderly in Chandigarh
SPS Bhatia, HM Swami, JS Thakur, V Bhatia
October-December 2007, 32(4):255-258
Research Question: What are the health-related problems of the aged and why do they feel lonely? Objective: To study the health-related problems and loneliness among the elderly in different micro-environment groups. Participants: Aged persons of age 65 years and above. Setting: Urban and rural area of Chandigarh. Design: Cross-sectional. Statistical Analysis: t-test and Z test. Results: During the study, it was found that out of the total 361 aged persons of Chandigarh, 311 (86.1%) persons reported one or more health-related complaints, with an average of two illnesses. The illness was higher among the females (59.5%) as compared to males (40.5%). The main health-related problems were disorders of the circulatory system (51.2%), musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (45.7%). It was also found that loneliness was prevalent more in females (72.8%) as compared to males (65.6%). Loneliness was more prevalent among persons who lived alone (92.2%) as compared to those who lived with their spouse (58.9%) or when husband and wife lived with the family (61.4%). It was higher among the widows (85.2%) and widowers (75.8%) who lived with the family as compared to the aged who lived with the spouse (58.9%) and the aged husband and wife who lived with the family (61.4%). Conclusion: Special geriatric services should be started in the hospitals as the majority of the aged have one or more health-related problems. The aged persons should be involved in social activities to avoid loneliness among them.
  16,369 1,075 14
Dietary intake in third trimester of pregnancy and prevalence of LBW: A community-based study in a rural area of Haryana
BT Rao, Arun Kumar Aggarwal, Rajesh Kumar
October-December 2007, 32(4):272-276
Objectives: (1) To assess the magnitude of the problem of low birth weight (LBW) in a rural area of Haryana (2) To study the association of caloric and protein intake in third trimester of pregnancy with birth weight. Study Design: Longitudinal study. Sample Size: One hundred and forty pregnant women. Study Area: Ten purposively selected villages in the rural area of Naraingarh block in Haryana. Study Tool and Data Collection: Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to record information regarding socioeconomic status, antenatal care, nature of physical activity and dietary intake in 24 h between September 2001 and August 2002. Data Analysis: For categorical variables, Chi-square test was used, and for numerical variables, t-test was used. Multivariate analysis was done for variables that were significant in bivariate analysis. Results: The prevalence of low birth weight (less than 2500 g) was 24.3% (95% CI 17.4-32.2%). The mean caloric intake during three dietary assessments was 1695 ± 182.8 kcal. The mean protein intake during three dietary assessments was 50.8 ± 9.27 g. The higher prevalence of LBW babies was observed in pregnant women with mean caloric intake of less than 1500 kcal and mean protein intake of less than 40 g (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the association of caloric intake (P < 0.01) and weight of the mother (P = 0.02) was independently associated with LBW. Conclusions: Low caloric intake in the third trimester of pregnancy and maternal weight are significantly associated with the birth weight of babies.
  7,944 908 2
A comparative study of air pollution-related morbidity among exposed population of Delhi
A Sagar, M Bhattacharya, Vinod Joon
October-December 2007, 32(4):268-271
Background: Vehicular pollution is increasing in Indian cities, which may lead to increased number of patients with diseases related to air pollution. Present study was undertaken to assess the pattern of morbidity in two areas of Delhi, one highly polluted area (HPA) and the other low polluted area (LPA). Materials and Methods: Subjects were interviewed regarding socioeconomic status and exposure history. Symptoms during the last month were recorded in a questionnaire and weight, height and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured. Air pollution data were obtained from the monitoring stations of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). Results: A total of 640 subjects participated in the study. Majority of the patients in both the areas were educated till primary but 24% in HPA and 13% in LPA were graduates. Current levels of all pollutants (except SO2 and NOx) were above the safety levels prescribed by CPCB in both the areas, but the values were much higher in HPA. The values of PEFR amongst study population were more compromised in HPA. The difference in mean PEFR values among the populations in LPA and HPA were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). The mean number of symptoms experienced by subjects of HPA was more as compared to LPA (P < 0.05). Frequency of occurrence of symptoms varied with duration of stay in the study area. Children were affected more than the adults. Conclusion: Air pollution has a deleterious effect on various systems of the body.
  8,082 538 10
Study on knowledge, attitude and practices regarding gender preference and female feticide among pregnant women
BN Vadera, UK Joshi, SV Unadakat, BS Yadav, Sudha Yadav
October-December 2007, 32(4):300-301
  6,833 558 4
Investigating causes of perinatal mortality by verbal autopsy in Maharashtra, India
Ragini Kulkarni, Sanjay Chauhan, Bela Shah, Geetha Menon, Chander Puri
October-December 2007, 32(4):259-263
Objective: To investigate the causes and contributory factors of perinatal mortality by verbal autopsy in Maharashtra. Materials and Methods: Rural and urban areas in six districts in Maharashtra were selected by Probability proportional to size sampling. Verbal autopsies for perinatal deaths were conducted using standard tools and by visiting households; cause of death was assigned according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 using a standard algorithm. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS-11 version software. Results: A total of 83 perinatal deaths (31 stillbirths and 52 early neonatal deaths) were investigated out of which cause of death for perinatal deaths could be assigned in 96.4% deaths. The leading causes of perinatal deaths were prematurity (19.3%) and complications of placenta, cord and membranes (12.9%) among stillbirths, while low birth weight (36%) and prematurity (26%) accounted for early neonatal deaths
  6,655 551 6
Knowledge and practice of oral polio vaccine-vaccine vial monitor among health personnel in India
Kamlesh Joshi, JS Thakur, Amarjeet Singh
October-December 2007, 32(4):283-285
  6,777 298 -
Ex-servicemen contributory health scheme
BS Deswal, Rakhi Dhawan
October-December 2007, 32(4):241-242
  6,032 463 -
A study on performance, response and outcome of treatment under RNTCP in a tuberculosis unit of Howrah district, West Bengal
Sukamal Bisoi, Amitabha Sarkar, Sharmila Mallik, Anima Haldar, Dibakar Haldar
October-December 2007, 32(4):245-248
Objectives: To evaluate the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) through assessment of performance, response and outcome of treatment of patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: In Domjur Tuberculosis Unit of Howrah district, West Bengal. Two hundred and eighty-six cases registered in the first two quarters (1 January to 30 June 2001) were selected for the study. Data were collected by review of records from all peripheral health units with a pre-designed and pre-tested schedule. Results: Sputum-positive among chest symptomatic were 89 (11.5%). Overall 78.3% were new cases and among them 67.1% were pulmonary, 48.4% were sputum-positive among new pulmonary cases detected. Sputum conversion rate of new sputum-positive cases at 2 or 3 months was 74.2%. Cure rate for new sputum-positive pulmonary TB cases was 53.8% and out of all smear-positive cases was 56.5%. Default among new smear-positive cases was 24.7%. Conclusion: Low sputum conversion rate after intensive phase of treatment, high defaulter rate and low cure rate among new sputum-positive cases in comparison to RNTCP norm have been reflected in this study.
  4,972 690 5
Evaluation of operational efficiency of the national anti-malaria program in "High-Risk" rural areas of Vadodara district
DM Solanki, Shobha Misra
October-December 2007, 32(4):249-254
Background: Malaria was and is a major scourge in India contributing more than three-fourths of the total cases in the Southeast Asian (SEA) region. Malaria is largely infl uenced by the local environmental conditions but can be kept in check if the operational implementation of the National Antimalaria Program: (NAMP) is effective. Keeping in mind the context of the situation in Gujarat, there was an urgent need to carry out a study to assess the operational aspects of the ongoing malaria control program. Objectives: To assess the operational aspects of NAMP in "highrisk" areas of rural Vadodara, seeking bottlenecks and possible correlation to the malaria situation in those areas. Materials and Methods: From 269 "high-risk" villages, 20 villages were selected randomly from 10 Talukas. 40 slide (smear-)-negative, 19 slide (smear-)-positive, 10 laboratory technicians, 10 MultiPurpose Workers (MPW) Supervisors and 18 MultiPurpose (MPW) and 18 Voluntary Workers were interviewed. The performance of the malaria clinic and the NAMP staff was evaluated using a point system. Results and Conclusions: The monthly blood examination rate (MBER) targets could not be achieved in 8 out of 10 primary health centers (PHCs) by active surveillance workers (AS) workers. The mean time interval between blood smear collection (BSC) and its receipt in the laboratory was 7.1 days. 46% of smear-negative patients having received presumptive treatment (PT) and 22% of smear-positive patients receiving radical treatment (RT) were supervised. Administration of "adequate" presumptive treatment and radical treatment to the above two sets of individuals was 65% and 58% respectively. Overall, the performance of 50% of malaria clinics and 94% of villages was poor to average. The study has found enough evidence to conclude that there were lapses in the operation of the NAMP.
  4,821 396 -
Disease characteristics and treatment outcome in elderly tuberculosis patients on DOTS
Geeta Pardeshi, Dilip Deshmukh
October-December 2007, 32(4):292-294
  3,448 468 8
Do we really need to shift to pedestal type of latrines in India?
Amarjeet Singh
October-December 2007, 32(4):243-244
  3,412 328 -
Morbidity pattern among prisoners of central jail, Hindalga, Belgaum, Karnataka
Asha A Bellad, Vijaya A Naik, MD Mallapur
October-December 2007, 32(4):307-307
  3,187 304 5
Chikungunya fever outbreak in Vellore, South India
TS Selvavinayagam
October-December 2007, 32(4):286-287
  2,718 395 6
Access to quantity and quality water: Problems perceived by residents of village Palwa in Ujjain district
Kirti Deshpande, Rakesh Kakkar, Vishal Diwan
October-December 2007, 32(4):295-296
  2,567 310 1
Disclosure among people living with HIV/AIDS
Pranita Taraphdar, Aparajita Dasgupta, B Saha
October-December 2007, 32(4):280-282
  2,535 296 12
A cross-sectional study of the profile and percentage of institutional deliveries among currently married women of 15-45-year age group in the villages of Veerapandi panchayat union of Salem district, Tamil Nadu
C Kannan
October-December 2007, 32(4):304-305
  2,476 344 1
Strengthening research in community medicine
Anton N Isaacs
October-December 2007, 32(4):239-240
  2,400 396 -
Self-reported prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in an urban area of Chandigarh city
Sitanshu Sekhar Kar, JS Thakur
October-December 2007, 32(4):302-303
  2,243 407 1
Epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of infectious hepatitis in Dakor town
A Bhagyalaxmi, M Gadhvi, BS Bhavsar
October-December 2007, 32(4):277-279
  2,336 272 4
Treatment seeking behavior of mentally ill patients in a rural area: A cross-sectional study
Pragya Sharma, AK Vohra, H Khurana
October-December 2007, 32(4):290-291
  2,278 324 2
Prevalence of HIV infection among patients of pulmonary tuberculosis attending chest diseases hospital, Jammu (Jammu and Kashmir)
R Bahl, B Singh, R Singh
October-December 2007, 32(4):288-289
  2,226 324 5
District public health services: Cost-benefit analysis
C Kannan
October-December 2007, 32(4):305-306
  2,157 292 -
Prevalence of stigmatizing attitude among urban middle class in Maharashtra: Implications for HIV/AIDS education strategy
Aarti Kaulagekar, Amruta Godbole
October-December 2007, 32(4):297-299
  1,862 282 -
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  © 2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007