HomeAboutusEditorial BoardCurrent issuearchivesSearch articlesInstructions for authorsSubscription detailsAdvertise

  Reader Login | Users online: 553

   Ahead of print articles    Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size  
Export selected to
Endnote
Reference Manager
Procite
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Most popular articles (Since September 15, 2007)

 
 
  Archives   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
 
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Initial viral load of a COVID-19-infected case indicated by its cycle threshold value of polymerase chain reaction could be used as a predictor of its transmissibility - An experience from Gujarat, India
Bidisa Sarkar, Rabindra Nath Sinha, Kamalesh Sarkar
July-September 2020, 45(3):278-282
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_593_20  
Background: Transmission dynamics of the infectious disease Corona Virus Disease - 19 (COVID-19) is yet to be understood fully. The study aimed at exploring whether quantitative viral load of COVID-19-infected case indicated by cycle threshold (Ct) value of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction could predict about transmission pattern in the community. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted involving 1976 individuals, suspected to be suffering from COVID-19 and contacts, of laboratory confirmed cases from selected districts of Gujarat, India. A total of 138 persons were detected to be positive. Weekly positivity showed an overall increasing trend during the studied weeks. It was observed that only 7% had high, 9% as moderate and rest, 84% had low viral load based on Ct values of real-time RT-PCR. Results: Most secondary cases clustered around index cases with high viral load whereas fewer secondary cases clustered around index cases with low viral load. Each index high viral load case transmitted an average of 6.25 secondary cases whereas the same of low viral load transmitted an average of 0.8 case. Conclusion: If cases with higher viral load are selectively isolated on detection from the rest of the community along with contact tracing of all individuals, who came in contact with them during the previous 5 days, the quantum of transmission will reduce subsequently. Moreover, health-care workers often get infected while working, probably due to the fact that they often handle cases with higher viral load. The Ct value of all may be provided along with test report to safeguard everybody's health including health-care workers.
  63,255 399 7
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity among adolescent school children of South Karnataka, India
M Shashidhar Kotian, S Ganesh Kumar, Suphala S Kotian
January-March 2010, 35(1):176-178
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62587  PMID:20606948
  61,344 1,091 48
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Sex selection through traditional drugs in rural north India
S Bandyopadhyay, AJ Singh
January-March 2007, 32(1):32-34
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.53390  
Background : Repidly declining sex ratio has highlighted a strong son preference among many societies various methods are employed by people to get a son. Objective: To determine the use pattern of sex selection drugs (SSDs) in rural North India. Methods: An integrated qualitative and quantitative study was conducted in rural North India. A rapid population and hospital based survey of women in their early reproductive life was done in the study area to enlist the respondents. Few SSD samples were collected and analyzed. Results: SSDs were freely available from grocers, chemist shops and specific people in villages. These contained Shivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa) and Majuphal (Gtuercus infectoria). SSD use rate was 46% and 30% in community based and hospital based studies respectively. Use rate was significantly higher in women who did not have any son. Of the SSD samples and two individual ingredients analyzed by thin layer chromatography, 3 contained testosterone and one progesterone; one ingredient contained testosterone and the other natural steroids. Conclusion: Use of SSDs seems to be very common in North India. Implication of presence of steroids in SSDs needs further evaluation.
  53,614 368 10
Menstrual hygiene: How hygienic is the adolescent girl?
A Dasgupta, M Sarkar
April-June 2008, 33(2):77-80
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.40872  PMID:19967028
Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i) To elicit the beliefs, conception and source of information regarding menstruation among the study population and (ii) to find out the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the field practice area of Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Results: Out of 160 respondents, 108 (67.5%) girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of 60 (37.5%) girls. One hundred and thirty-eight (86.25%) girls believed it as a physiological process. Seventy-eight (48.75%) girls knew the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practices, only 18 (11.25%) girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. For cleaning purpose, 156 (97.5%) girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 136 (85%) girls practised different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today.
  47,556 2,104 121
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Modified kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: social researcher should include updated income criteria, 2012
Mohan Bairwa, Meena Rajput, Sandeep Sachdeva
July-September 2013, 38(3):185-186
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.116358  PMID:24019607
  47,423 2,236 70
CME
Health promotion: An effective tool for global health
Sanjiv Kumar, GS Preetha
January-March 2012, 37(1):5-12
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94009  PMID:22529532
Health promotion is very relevant today. There is a global acceptance that health and social wellbeing are determined by many factors outside the health system which include socioeconomic conditions, patterns of consumption associated with food and communication, demographic patterns, learning environments, family patterns, the cultural and social fabric of societies; sociopolitical and economic changes, including commercialization and trade and global environmental change. In such a situation, health issues can be effectively addressed by adopting a holistic approach by empowering individuals and communities to take action for their health, fostering leadership for public health, promoting intersectoral action to build healthy public policies in all sectors and creating sustainable health systems. Although, not a new concept, health promotion received an impetus following Alma Ata declaration. Recently it has evolved through a series of international conferences, with the first conference in Canada producing the famous Ottawa charter. Efforts at promoting health encompassing actions at individual and community levels, health system strengthening and multi sectoral partnership can be directed at specific health conditions. It should also include settings-based approach to promote health in specific settings such as schools, hospitals, workplaces, residential areas etc. Health promotion needs to be built into all the policies and if utilized efficiently will lead to positive health outcomes.
  41,200 2,276 74
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Health and social problems of the elderly: A cross-sectional study in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka
A Lena, K Ashok, M Padma, V Kamath, A Kamath
April-June 2009, 34(2):131-134
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.51236  PMID:19966960
Background: Change in socio-economic status and various health problems adversely affect an individual's way of life during old age. Objectives: To study the health and social problems of the elderly and their attitude towards life. Materials and Methods : Descriptive study carried out in the Field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine in South India. A total of 213 elderly patients (60 years old and above) who attended the outreach clinics were interviewed using a pre-tested schedule. Findings were described in terms of proportions and percentages to study the socio-economic status of the samples and its correlation to social problems. Results: Around 73% of the patients belonged to the age group of 60-69 years old. Nearly half of the respondents were illiterate. Around 48% felt they were not happy in life. A majority of them had health problems such as hypertension followed by arthritis, diabetes, asthma, cataract, and anemia. About 68% of the patients said that the attitude of people towards the elderly was that of neglect. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that there is a need for geriatric counseling centers that can take care of their physical and psychological needs. The stringent rules for eligibility to social security schemes should be made more flexible to cover a larger population.
  35,217 1,848 34
Vaginal discharge: Its causes and associated symptoms as perceived by rural north Indian women
AJ Singh
January-March 2007, 32(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.53388  
Background : Reproductive health is closely associated with culture of a country. Its sign and symptoms can be best understood within the ethnomedical contest rather then biomedical theories. Objective : To ascertain the views of the respondents regarding vaginal discharge. Methods : Three roadside villages of Panchkula, Haryana was purposively selected. A house to house survey was done and a total of 236 married women 15-45 years were interviewed by a female social worker on various aspect on vaginal discharge. Six FGDs and five case studies were also done. Results: Prevalence of vaginal discharge was 28.7%. Weakness, backache and poor vision were told as the main health effects of vaginal discharge. Heat, melting of bones, sexual promiscuity, poor hygiene and diet were told as the major causes of vaginal discharge. Consultation rate for vaginal discharge was 59%. Conclusion: The views of the rural north Indian women regarding vaginal discharge reflected the Ayurvedic system of thinking of the Indian masses.
  32,740 381 7
Essentials of Management by Prof. Harold Koontz and Prof. Heinz Weihrich
S Goel
July-September 2006, 31(3):186-186
Full text not available  [PDF]
  25,400 5,251 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge, attitude, and practices about biomedical waste management among healthcare personnel: A cross-sectional study
Vanesh Mathur, S Dwivedi, MA Hassan, RP Misra
April-June 2011, 36(2):143-145
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.84135  PMID:21976801
Background: The waste produced in the course of healthcare activities carries a higher potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste. Inadequate and inappropriate knowledge of handling of healthcare waste may have serious health consequences and a significant impact on the environment as well. Objective: The objective was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices of doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians, and sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted among hospitals (bed capacity >100) of Allahabad city. Participants: Medical personnel included were doctors (75), nurses (60), laboratory technicians (78), and sanitary staff (70). Results: Doctors, nurses, and laboratory technicians have better knowledge than sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management. Knowledge regarding the color coding and waste segregation at source was found to be better among nurses and laboratory staff as compared to doctors. Regarding practices related to biomedical waste management, sanitary staff were ignorant on all the counts. However, injury reporting was low across all the groups of health professionals. Conclusion: The importance of training regarding biomedical waste management needs emphasis; lack of proper and complete knowledge about biomedical waste management impacts practices of appropriate waste disposal.
  27,168 1,509 47
EDITORIAL COMMENTARY
Public health challenges in India: Seizing the opportunities
Jai Prakash Narain
April-June 2016, 41(2):85-88
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.177507  PMID:27051080
  26,889 929 19
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Disaster management in flash floods in Leh (Ladakh): A case study
Preeti Gupta, Anurag Khanna, S Majumdar
July-September 2012, 37(3):185-190
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.99928  PMID:23112446
Background: On August 6, 2010, in the dark of the midnight, there were flash floods due to cloud burst in Leh in Ladakh region of North India. It rained 14 inches in 2 hours, causing loss of human life and destruction. The civil hospital of Leh was badly damaged and rendered dysfunctional. Search and rescue operations were launched by the Indian Army immediately after the disaster. The injured and the dead were shifted to Army Hospital, Leh, and mass casualty management was started by the army doctors while relief work was mounted by the army and civil administration. Objective: The present study was done to document disaster management strategies and approaches and to assesses the impact of flash floods on human lives, health hazards, and future implications of a natural disaster. Materials and Methods: The approach used was both quantitative as well as qualitative. It included data collection from the primary sources of the district collectorate, interviews with the district civil administration, health officials, and army officials who organized rescue operations, restoration of communication and transport, mass casualty management, and informal discussions with local residents. Results: 234 persons died and over 800 were reported missing. Almost half of the people who died were local residents (49.6%) and foreigners (10.2%). Age-wise analysis of the deaths shows that the majority of deaths were reported in the age group of 25-50 years, accounting for 44.4% of deaths, followed by the 11-25-year age group with 22.2% deaths. The gender analysis showed that 61.5% were males and 38.5% were females. A further analysis showed that more females died in the age groups <10 years and ≥50 years. Conclusions: Disaster preparedness is critical, particularly in natural disasters. The Army's immediate search, rescue, and relief operations and mass casualty management effectively and efficiently mitigated the impact of flash floods, and restored normal life.
  26,376 512 14
CME
"Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health"
SA Rizwan, Baridalyne Nongkynrih, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta
January-March 2013, 38(1):4-8
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.106617  PMID:23559696
Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 μg/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution.
  25,391 977 42
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Sexual behavior of married young women: A preliminary study from north India
Ajit Avasthi, Rajinder Kaur, Om Prakash, Anindya Banerjee, Lata Kumar, P Kulhara
July-September 2008, 33(3):163-167
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.39677  PMID:19876477
Background: There are significant gaps in the scientific literature concerning female sexual behavior and attitudes surrounding sexuality, which have definitive implications on public health and clinical work. Aim: To study the sexual behavior of young married Indian women. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 100 consecutive women attending the Department of Pediatrics for the care of noncritical children in a multispecialty, tertiary care teaching hospital setting in North India. Current levels of sexual functioning and satisfaction were assessed by using the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning for Women (BISF-W). All participants were also administered a translated and culturally adapted instrument called Sex Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire-II (SKAQ-II). Results: Peno-vaginal sex continues to be considered the most desired and actually performed sexual activity for arousal and orgasm, followed by kissing and foreplay. Difficulties while performing sexual activity, in the form of physical problems, were faced by 17% of the participants. The participants displayed adequate sexual knowledge and favorable attitude towards sexuality as measured by SKAQ-II. Conclusion: The present study is a preliminary effort to understand the contemporary female sexual behavior, knowledge and attitude by employing standard instruments. Still further studies are required in this area.
  24,595 961 14
CME
Integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness: An overview
GK Ingle, Chetna Malhotra
April-June 2007, 32(2):108-110
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.35646  
  23,991 1,476 4
Addressing domestic violence against women: An unfinished agenda
Ravneet Kaur, Suneela Garg
April-June 2008, 33(2):73-76
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.40871  PMID:19967027
  23,613 1,166 37
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Noncommunicable diseases among school-going adolescents: A case study on prevalence of risk factors from Sabarkantha District of Gujarat, India
Tapasvi Puwar, Deepak Saxena, Sandul Yasobant, Shital Savaliya
December 2018, 43(5):33-37
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_117_18  PMID:30686872
Background: The increasing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and large proportion of adolescent population in India; crafts the dynamics of NCD risk factors. Most of the NCD risk factors are behaviorally acquired which are due to change in lifestyle during adolescent age groups. Objective: This study aims to determine the prevalence of risk factors among school-going adolescents in one of district of Gujarat state, India. Subjects and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among sampled schools of Sabarkantha district of Gujarat, India, during September–December 2016. A total of 484 school-going adolescents were screened for body weight, height, blood pressure, and some information of sociodemographic, lifestyle habits, and family history were collected through a structured questionnaire in vernacular language. Data were managed with SPSS version 20. Results: This study documents that not having fruits and not doing physical activities daily are the major risk factors of NCDs among school-going adolescents of Sabarkantha district, Gujarat. In addition to this, also it has been documented that there are differential standards for body mass index (BMI) available for adolescents and have been used extensively in various studies. This study provides an insight to these three major BMI standards and their differences in measurement for the school-going adolescents. Conclusions: This study recommends promoting healthier practices for prevention of NCD lifestyle risk factors among school-going adolescents and it also recommends standardizing the BMI measurements for adolescents for India.
  23,057 317 4
CME
Geriatric health in India: Concerns and solutions
Gopal K Ingle, Anita Nath
October-December 2008, 33(4):214-218
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.43225  PMID:19876492
  19,330 2,738 51
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Study of childhood obesity among school children aged 6 to 12 years in union territory of Puducherry
Preetam B Mahajan, Anil J Purty, Zile Singh, Johnson Cherian, Murugan Natesan, Sandeep Arepally, V Senthilvel
January-March 2011, 36(1):45-50
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.80793  PMID:21687381
Objective: To study the prevalence of obesity and overweight among school children in Puducherry. To identify any variation as per age, gender, place of residence and type of school. Setting and design: Secondary data analysis of a school-based cross sectional study in all the four regions of Puducherry. Materials and Methods: Children between 6 and 12 yrs were sampled using multistage random sampling with population proportionate to size from 30 clusters. Anthropometric data (BMI) was analyzed using CDC growth charts. Data was analyzed using SPSS, BMI (CDC) calculator, CI calculator and OR calculator. Results: The prevalence of overweight (΃85 th percentile) among children was 4.41% and prevalence of obesity (>95 th percentile) was 2.12%. Mahe region had the highest prevalence of overweight (8.66%) and obesity (4.69%). Female children from private schools and urban areas were at greater risk of being overweight and obese. Conclusions: Childhood obesity is a problem in Puducherry and requires timely intervention for its control.
  20,684 938 11
SHORT ARTICLES
Social classification: The need to update in the present scenario
AK Agarwal
January-March 2008, 33(1):50-51
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.39245  PMID:19966998
  19,781 1,568 32
CME
Public health in British India: A brief account of the history of medical services and disease prevention in colonial India
Muhammad Umair Mushtaq
January-March 2009, 34(1):6-14
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.45369  PMID:19876448
  20,031 1,163 16
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Measuring malnutrition -The role of Z scores and the composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF)
N Seetharaman, TV Chacko, SLR Shankar, AC Mathew
January-March 2007, 32(1):35-39
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.53392  
Background : The current WHO recommendation is to use the Z-Score or SD system to grade undernutrition which allows us to measure all the three indices and express the results in terms of Z scores or standard deviation units from the median of the international reference population. Objectives : To estimate the prevalence of undernutrition among under-five children in Coimbatore slums, using the Z-Score system of classification and the recently constructed Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF). 2. To compare the Z-Score system with the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) classification of undernutrition. Methods : Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometry and clinical examination. Children were weighed and measured as per the WHO guidelines on Anthropometry. Epi-Info 2002 software package was used to calculate the Z scores and for statistical analysis. Results : Only 31.4% of the children studied were normal; 68.6% were in a state of "Anthropometric Failure". As per the Z score system, 49.6% were underweight (21.7% severely); 48.4% were stunted (20.3% severely) and 20.2% were wasted (6.9% severely). Whereas, as per IAP criteria, 51.4% were undernourished and 3.2% were severely undernourished. Using Underweight (low weight-for-age) as the only criterion for identifying undernourished children (as done in the Integrated Child Development Services currently) may underestimate the true prevalence of undernutrition, by as much as 21.9%. Conclusions : More widespread use of the Z-Score system is recommended for identifying all the facets of undernutrition. Estimates of the true prevalence of undernutrition must incorporate a composite index of anthropometric failure.
  19,680 789 26
A study of dysmenorrhea during menstruation in adolescent girls
Anil K Agarwal, Anju Agarwal
January-March 2010, 35(1):159-164
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62586  PMID:20606943
Research question: What is the prevalence of dysmenorrhea severity and its associated symptoms among adolescent girls? Objectives: (1) To study the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in high school adolescent girls of Gwalior. (2) To study the evidence of severity of the problem with associated symptoms and general health status. Study design: An explorative survey technique with a correlational approach. Setting and Participants: Nine hundred and seventy adolescent girls of age 15 to 20 years, studying in the higher secondary schools (Pre-University Colleges) of Gwalior. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Chi-square test, and Test-Retest Method. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in adolescent girls was found to be 79.67%. Most of them, 37.96%, suffered regularly from dysmenorrhea severity. The three most common symptoms present on both days, that is,day before and first day of menstruation were lethargy and tiredness (first), depression (second) and inability to concentrate in work (third), whereas the ranking of these symptoms on the day after the stoppage of menstruation showed depression as the first common symptoms. Negative correlation had found between dysmenorrhea and the General Health Status as measured by the Body surface area.
  18,330 943 47
VIEW POINT
Antimicrobial resistance: Progress in the decade since emergence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in India
Avika Dixit, Neeta Kumar, Sanjiv Kumar, Vidyasagar Trigun
January-March 2019, 44(1):4-8
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_217_18  PMID:30983704
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a major threat to public health estimated to cause 10 million deaths annually by 2050. India carries one of the largest burdens of drug-resistant pathogens worldwide. NDM-1 reported in 2008, rapidly spread to other countries was named after India's capital. India is one of the largest consumers of antibiotics worldwide, and antibiotic sale is increasing rapidly. AMR develops when microbes develop mechanisms to evade the action of antimicrobials. The factors that contribute to AMR include irrational and overuse of antibiotics. In India, various actions have been taken including setting up of a National Task Force on AMR Containment (2010), “Chennai Declaration” by a consortium of the Indian Medical Societies (2012), Setting of Indian Council of Medical Research national surveillance network of laboratories, “Redline” campaign for educating public and National Action Plan on AMR 2017. There is a need integrating AMR education in medical education. India needs to start the subspecialty of infectious diseases and strengthen laboratory services. Every hospital needs to have an AMR policy including infection control, improvement in hygiene, and sanitation and antibiotic use. An element of research needs to be integrated into the AMR policy and encouragement of the pharmaceutical industry to develop “superbug antibiotics.” Unless AMR is addressed effectively the gains made in health are likely to be lost.
  17,986 871 -
EDITORIAL COMMENTARY
Millennium development goals (MDGS) to sustainable development goals (SDGS): Addressing unfinished agenda and strengthening sustainable development and partnership
Sanjiv Kumar, Neeta Kumar, Saxena Vivekadhish
January-March 2016, 41(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170955  PMID:26917865
  16,825 1,513 94
About us 
Instructions 
Subscribe 
Advertise 
Search articles 
Contact us 
My Preferences 

 


  Sitemap | What's New | Feedback | Copyright and Disclaimer
  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007