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    Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2017
Volume 42 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-56

Online since Wednesday, February 08, 2017

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EDITORIAL COMMENTARY  

Need for strategic revamping to prevent and control non-communicable diseases in India p. 1
Damodar Bachani
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.199803  
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VIEW POINT Top

Non-health subjects in Community Medicine: How much healthy or medicinal are they? p. 4
Sadhu Charan Mohapatra
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.199801  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Unintentional childhood injuries in urban Delhi: A community-based study Highly accessed article p. 8
Giridara Gopal Parmeswaran, Mani Kalaivani, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Anil Kumar Goswami, Baridalyne Nongkynrih
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.199791  
Background: Childhood injuries claim around a million lives around the world each year. A community-based study on childhood injuries would provide valuable information on the epidemiology of injuries. Objective: To assess the prevalence of unintentional childhood injuries in an urban locality and determine various sociodemo graphic factors associated with childhood injuries. Methods: The study was done in urban Delhi among 1,639 children aged less than 18 years. Information on injuries in the last one year was collected. Only those injury episodes where treatment was sought or the child was left disabled after the injury were included. Treatment seeking behavior and the impact of injury on the child and the household were also assessed. Results: Among 1,639 children, 102 children suffered 116 episodes of various types of injuries in the last one year. Prevalence of injuries was 7.1% (95% CI: 5.9-8.4). Mean age was 8.5 ± 5.1 years. Prevalence was more in boys (8.4%) than girls (5.1%). Accidental falls (37.1%), dog bites (25%), and road traffic injuries (18.9%) were the three most common modes of injury. Two-thirds of children with injuries were taken to the emergency facility for treatment while 40% resorted to home remedies. Treatment expenses in some families led to the need for borrowing money, additional employment by another family member, and selling of household assets. Conclusions: The prevalence of childhood injuries in the past one year was 7.1%. Maximum injuries occurred at home and were mostly accidental falls and dog bites. Childhood injuries caused loss of school attendance and financial burden to the family.
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Prevalence and predictors of depression in community-dwelling elderly in rural Haryana, India p. 13
Manju Pilania, Mohan Bairwa, Hitesh Khurana, Neelam Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.199792  
Background: Depression in the elderly has been emerged as a serious public health challenge in the developing countries. Elderly population with depression is on rise in India, but is not adequately addressed. This study was planned to ascertain the prevalence of depression among elderly in a rural population of Haryana and assess its socio-demographic correlates. Methods: This study was a community based, cross sectional study, which was conducted in Community Health Centre (CHC), Chiri of Rohtak district (Haryana, India). Of total 124 Anganwadi centres in study area, 10 were randomly selected. A total 500 elderly persons aged 60 years and above were randomly screened for depression. Long form of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS- 30) was used with cut off score at 22. The Pearson’s Chi-squared test, student’s t test, and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the association of depression in the elderly with its risk factors. Result: In our study, the prevalence of depression in the elderly was 14.4% (95% CI: 11.6- 17.8). Mean age of study population was 68.5 ± 7.7 years. Depression in the elderly had significant association with female gender [OR=2.7 (95% CI 1.4- 5.0)], not being consulted for major decisions [OR=2.7 (95% CI 1.5- 4.7)], presence of any chronic morbidity [OR=2.4 (95% CI 1.3- 4.5)], spending day without doing any activity, work or hobby [OR=3.8 (2.1- 7.1)], and death of any close relative in the last 1 year [OR=2 (1.1- 3.7)] after adjustment of various factors. Conclusion: Our study revealed that the prevalence of depression in the elderly was 14.4% in a rural community of north India.
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Effectiveness of mind mapping technique in information retrieval among medical college students in Puducherry-A pilot study p. 19
Madhanraj Kalyanasundaram, Sherin Billy Abraham, Divija Ramachandran, Venkatachalam Jayaseelan, Joy Bazroy, Zile Singh, Anil Jacob Purty
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.199793  
Background: The traditional teaching learning methods involve a one way process of transmission of knowledge leaving the students lacking behind in creative abilities. Medical schools need to change their teaching strategies to keep the interest of students and empower them for future self- learning and critical thinking. Objective: To assess the impact of mind mapping technique in information retrieval among medical college students in Puducherry. Methods: A pilot study was conducted using experimental study design among sixth semester MBBS students (n = 64) at a medical college in Puducherry, India. One group (n = 32) followed the text reading method and another group (n = 32) followed the mind mapping technique to learn the same passage given to them. The knowledge about the topic was assessed using a pre designed questionnaire at baseline, day 0 and day 7. The knowledge gain is the primary outcome variable and is compared between two groups. The feedback regarding the teaching methods was obtained from the participants. Results: Mean knowledge score in the text group was lesser than the mind map group at baseline (2.6 Vs 3.5; p = 0.08). On Day 0, the mean score in text group was slightly lesser than the mind map group (8.7 Vs 9.0; p = 0.26). On Day 7, the mean score in mind map group is significantly more than the text group (8.9 Vs 8.5; p = 0.03). Conclusion: The mind mapping technique is an innovative and effective method in remembering things better than the routine way of reading texts.
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Sexual behavior, HIV prevalence and awareness among wives of migrant workers: results from cross-sectional survey in rural North India p. 24
Alok Ranjan, Tarun Bhatnagar, Giridhara R Babu, Roger Detels
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.199794  
Background: Migration has been linked to the spread of HIV epidemic from the urban areas of western India to the rural areas of north India. Objectives: This is the first population-based study among the wives of migrant workers of Muzaffarpur district in Bihar with objectives to describe their sexual behavior within marriage, estimate the prevalence of HIV, and to know their awareness regarding HIV/AIDS. Methods: A two-stage cluster survey was conducted by randomly selecting 25 eligible wives from each of the 34 selected villages. A total of 850 wives were interviewed and the blood samples were collected for HIV testing. To determine the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-awareness, we calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 34 (3%) of 850 wives reported condom use with their husband. HIV prevalence was 0.59% (95% CI: 0.19-1.37%) among the wives of migrant workers. Out of 850 wives, 132 (15.5%) had heard about HIV. Condoms use (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.22-7.90) and premarital sex (OR=7.44, 95% CI: 1.6-33.67) were found significantly positively associated with HIV knowledge of wives. HIV awareness of the wives was significantly associated with age-group 15-24 years, literacy status, and possession of television and husbands’ literacy status. The knowledge about HIV among wives had significant positive impact on condoms use and premarital sex. HIV prevalence among the wives of migrant workers was higher than the prevalence among women in the general population. Education was found to be positively associated with awareness about HIV. Conclusions: Effective interventions are needed for increasing awareness of HIV among wives of migrant workers in Bihar.
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Is focus on prevention missing in national health programs? A situation analysis of IEC/BCC/Health promotion activities in a district setting of Punjab and Haryana p. 30
Jarnail Singh Thakur, Nidhi Jaswal, Ashoo Grover
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.199795  
Context: Health promotion (HP) has been an integral part of all national programs although it has been a low priority in India, which has resulted in a failure to achieve the desired results. Settings and Design: Situation analysis of information education communication (IEC)/behavior change communication (BCC)/HP activities within the existing national health programs was undertaken in the district of Hoshiarpur in Punjab and the district of Ambala in Haryana during 2013-14. Materials and Methods: Facility-based assessments were done by conducting in-depth interviews with stakeholders, program officers, medical officers, health workers, and counselors. Household survey (332 individuals) and exit interview (102 interviews) were conducted to assess the knowledge of the community regarding key risk factors. Results: There was a high vacancy in the mass media division with 40% (2 out of 5) and 89% (8 out of 9) of the sanctioned positions vacant in Hoshiarpur and Ambala, respectively, with low capacity of staff and budget. There was no annual calendar, logbook of activities with poor recording of IEC material received and disseminated. The knowledge of community members regarding key risk factors such as tobacco use, salt intake, blood pressure level, anemia, and tuberculosis was 77.3%, 26.4%, 16.4%, 32.7%, and 91.8%, respectively, in the district of Ambala as compared to 77.5%, 37.5%, 33.3%, 25.8%, and 88.3%, respectively, in the district of Hoshiarpur. The village health and sanitation committee (VHSC) in the district of Hoshiarpur and village level core committee (VLCC) in the district of Ambala were found to be nonfunctional with no Iec/Bcc activities in the covered villages in the last month. Monitoring and supervision of Iec/Bcc activities were poor in both the districts. Conclusions: Iec/Bcc/HP is a neglected area in national health programs in the selected districts with inadequate budget, human resources with poor implementation, and requires strengthening for better implementation of the national health programs.
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Quality of antenatal care provided by nurse midwives in an Urban health centre with regard to low-risk antenatal mothers p. 37
Ruby Angeline Pricilla, Kirubah Vasandhi David, Rajeswari Siva, T Jeni Christal Vimala, Sajitha Parveen MF Rahman, Nancy Angeline
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.199796  
Background:India contributes to 19% of the global maternal deaths. Good quality antenatal care can prevent maternal deaths by early detection of complications and maintaining maternal health. There are few studies documenting quality of antenatal care in India. This study aimed to document the antenatal services provided by nurse midwives to low-risk pregnant mothers from an urban population. Aims: The primary objective was to describe the quality of the antenatal care provided by nurse midwives of an urban health centre with regard to low-risk mothers. The secondary objective was to document the maternal and early neonatal outcomes of the enrolled mothers during the period of study. Methods: This prospective cohort study was done on 200 pregnant women who had antenatal care by nurse midwives between April 2014 and November 2014. The quality of care was assessed by a checklist adapted from World Health Organization (WHO). Results: We report that the quality of antenatal care for all domains was above 90% except for the health education domain, which was poor with regard to breastfeeding and family planning in the enrolled 200 pregnant women. Conclusion: Our study concluded that trained nurse midwives when regularly monitored, audited and linked with reliable referral facilities can deliver good quality antenatal care.
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Content of food advertising for young adolescents on television p. 43
Setu Gupta, Swati Kalra, Jaya Shankar Kaushik, Piyush Gupta
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.199800  
Background: Food related advertisements on television may have a major influence on the dietary habits and obesity among young adolescents. Objective: To evaluate the frequency and typology of food advertisements on most popular television channels, watched by school-going young adolescents in Delhi. Methodology: Biphasic study to (a) identify the three television channels most frequently watched by administering a questionnaire to 400 school going young adolescents; and (b) view each of these channels for 2 hours per day for 6 days each, and observe the content of advertisements related to foods, beverages, and food outlets. Results: Four hundred and three food related advertisements were viewed over 36 hour on Discovery, MTV and Disney Channels. Among 235 food related advertisements 163 (69.3%) pertained to candies, chocolates and confectionary and 35 (14.8%) to salty snacks. Sugar sweetened soft drinks contributed 90 of 106 (85%) of beverage advertisements. Of 62 advertisements related to food outlets, 59 were of fast food joints. Conclusion: Majority of food advertising content on television most commonly watched by young adolescents is related to unhealthy foods and beverages, igh in energy and low in micronutrient content.
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An investigation to identify potential risk factors associated with common chronic diseases among the older population in India p. 46
Enemona Emmanuel Adaji, Anand S Ahankari, Puja R Myles
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.199802  
Background: In India, chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and their prevalence has constantly increased over the last decade. Objective: This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with common chronic diseases among people aged 50 years and over in India. Materials and Methods: Data from Wave 1 of the 2007/2008 Indian Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) was used to investigate the association between lifestyle choices and chronic diseases using logistic regression. Result: The fully adjusted model showed that significant independent risk factors for angina included area of residence, being diagnosed with diabetes, chronic lung disease (CLD) [highest odds ratio (OR) 4.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.95-7.70] and arthritis. For arthritis, risk factors included having underlying diabetes, CLD diagnosis, or angina (highest OR 2.32, 95% CI: 1.63-3.31). Risk factors associated with CLD included arthritis, angina (highest OR 4.76, 95% CI: 2.94-7.72), alcohol use, and tobacco use. Risk factors associated with diabetes included level of education, area of residence, socioeconomic status, angina (highest OR 3.59, 95% CI: 2.44-5.29), CLD, arthritis, stroke, and vegetable consumption. Finally, risk factors associated with stroke included diabetes and angina (highest OR 3.34, 95% CI: 1.72-6.50). The presence of any other comorbidity was significantly associated with all five chronic diseases studied. Conclusion: The results show that within the older population, the contribution of lifestyle risk factors to the common chronic diseases investigated in this study was limited. Our findings showed that the major health issue within the study population was multimorbidity.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Degrees of deficiency: doctors and vitamin D p. 53
Susheel Sudheesh, Ranil Johann Boaz
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.199799  
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Effectiveness of iron supplementation in reducing iron deficiency anemia in India p. 54
Aakriti Gupta, Umesh Kapil
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.199797  
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NOTICE OF RETRACTION Top

Retraction: Early detection of airflow limitation in men smoking tobacco in rural parts of belgaum district using handheld spirometer: A cross-sectional study p. 56
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DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.199821  
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Retraction: Nutritional status and academic achievement of school adolescents availing mid-day meal in government schools of Chandigarh, India p. 56
,
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.199822  
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Retraction: Hepatitis B endemicity in some parts of Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India p. 56

DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.199823  
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007